This is the new topic for all of us since the first we discuss the stem cell in so many topic of the last article, I’m very glad to discuss about Stem Cell Knee Repair Clinical Trials, wish that we can take the benefit of this article together and wish that this article could be meaningfull for all of us.
Remind our self first about the anatomy and physiology of our own knee, the knee is a complex joint that moves straight backward as well as twists slightly from side to side. The knee is the meeting point of the femur in the upper leg and the tibia in the lower leg. The fibula, the other bone in the lower leg, is connected to the joint but is not directly affected by the hinge joint action. Another bone, the patella or kneecap, is at the center of the knee. Two concave pads of cartilage called menisci disperse the friction created at the meeting of the ends of the tibia and femur. There are also several key ligaments that connect these bones. The four key ligaments of the knee are : Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), Medial collateral ligament (MCL), Lateral collateral ligament (LCL), Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)
Damage to the Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL), such as a tear, is a common knee injury among athletes. Severe injuries to this important ligament typically involve reconstructive surgery. Another common sporting injury is pulling or straining the hamstring tendons, two groups of string-like connective tissues at the back of the knee and thigh that connect some of the major muscles of the knee. A dislocated kneecap is yet another common knee condition. The kneecap slides along a groove in the femur as the knee bends. It is held in place by a ligament at the bottom and a tendon on top. Those connect to the femur and tibia. Knee problems and knee pain are common as the knee is a frequent point of contact during traumatic accidents and is as prone to wear and tear due to its weight-bearing nature. It is also a common site for arthritis pain. Other knee problems include : Fractured knee cap, Torn meniscus, Torn ligament, Torn hamstring muscle, Gout, and many more.
Like what has already mention before that Cartilage is a connective tissue that helps bone slide without pain in joints between bones. When knee cartilage is worn away due to aging, injury or degenerative disease it can result in severe pain. Dr. Brian Cole, Midwest Orthopaedics at Rush sports medicine specialist and Section Head of the Cartilage Restoration Center at Rush, is heading up the nation’s first clinical study using a stem cell drug called Cartistem to aid in the repair of knee cartilage. Stem cells are not going to recreate a new joint or a new structure. They are going to assist in repair by up regulating or jump starting the environment in a healing phase.
Biomedical engineers at Hopkins have caused stem cells from adult goats to grow into tissue that resembles cartilage, a key step toward creating a minimally invasive procedure that may one day be used to repair injured knees, noses and other body parts. In this method, doctors inject a fluid filled with stem cells and nutrients into damaged tissue, then use light to harden the liquid into a stable gel. The researchers believe stem cells within the gel will multiply and form new bone or cartilage to replace the injured tissue. The team’s goal is to develop a new way to deliver and control the behavior of adult stem cells to restore bone and cartilage that has been damaged by disease or injury or is impaired by a genetic defect. Restoration of the cartilage would be particularly helpful because, unlike skin, cartilage does not naturally regenerate. Routine use of this procedure in humans may be many years away. Like many new research projects, this work uses stem cells because they have the ability to renew themselves and also to develop into many types of tissue. The cartilage samples show the proper gene expression and a cartilage-specific extracellular matrix. Lab tests show that the bone precursor cells are producing calcium, a first step toward osteogenesis, the formation of bone. The researchers are synthesizing a new hydrogel that should degrade harmlessly in the body after the new tissue develops. Also, the team is refining its cell growth methods to more closely mimic the normal development of cartilage and bone cells.