from the definition about stem cells in the last article, we has already discuss a little bit about induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Definition, here you will found out more about the definition of induced pluripotent stem cells. Induced pluripotent stem cells (also known as iPS cells or iPSCs) are adult cells that have been genetically reprogrammed to an embryonic stem cell by being forced to express genes and factors which is important for maintaining the defining properties of embryonic stem cells.
IPSC are derived from skin or blood cells that have been reprogrammed back into an embryonic-like pluripotent state that enables the development of an unlimited source of any type of human cell needed for therapeutic purposes..Mouse iPSCs were first reported in 2006, and human iPSCs were first reported in late 2007. characteristic of all three germ layers. The iPSC technology was pioneered by Shinya Yamanaka’s lab in Kyoto, Japan, who showed in 2006 that the introduction of four specific genes encoding transcription factors could convert adult cells into pluripotent stem cells. He was awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize along with Sir John Gurdon “for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent.” Mouse iPSCs demonstrate important characteristics of pluripotent stem cells, including forming tumors containing cells from all three germ layers, expressing stem cell markers and being able to contribute to many different tissues when injected into mouse embryos at a very early stage in development. Human iPSCs also express stem cell markers and are capable of generating cells
The IPSCs is not only bypass the need for embryos, but can be made in a patient-matched manner Since iPSCs can be derived directly from adult tissues, which means that each individual could have their own pluripotent stem cell line. These unlimited supplies of autologous cells could be used to generate transplants without the risk of immune rejection. While the iPSC technology has not yet advanced to a stage where therapeutic transplants have been deemed safe, iPSCs are readily being used in personalized drug discovery efforts and understanding the patient-specific basis of disease. Depending on the methods used, reprogramming of adult cells to obtain iPSCs may pose significant risks that could limit their use in humans.
Pluripotent stem cells gave us a very great promise in the field of Regenerative Medicine. Because they can propagate indefinitely, as well as give rise to every other cell type in the body (such as pancreatic, neurons, heart, and liver cells) pluripotent stem cells represent a single source of cells that could be used to replace those lost to damage or disease. The most well-known type of pluripotent stem cell is the embryonic stem cell. However, since the generation of embryonic stem cells involves destruction of the pre-implantation stage embryo, there has been much controversy surrounding their use. Further, because embryonic stem cells can only be derived from embryos, it has so far not been feasible to create patient-matched embryonic stem cell lines.