How stem cells work in the body is a very good question for anyone who wants to know more about stem cells and how do stem cells work in our body. We will review first from the first time of human being created. Once an egg cell is fertilized by a sperm, it will divide and become an embryo. There are stem cells in the embryo that are capable of becoming all of the various cell types of the human body. Scientists get embryo for research in two ways. Many couples conceive by the process of In Vitro Fertilization (IVF), in this process a couple’s sperm and eggs are fertilized in a culture dish. The eggs develop into embryos, which are then implanted in the female. Because of more embryos are made than can be implanted, these embryos are usually frozen. There are so many couples donate their unused embryos for stem cell research. The second way in which scientists get embryos is therapeutic cloning. This technique merges a cell (from the patient who needs the stem cell therapy) with a donor egg. The nucleus is removed from the egg and replaced with the nucleus of the patient’s cell. This egg is stimulated to divide either chemically or with electricity, and the resulting embryo carries the patient’s genetic material, which significantly reduces the risk that his or her body will reject the stem cells once they are implanted.
When an embryo contains about eight cells, the stem cells are totipotent whereas they can develop into all cell types. At 3-4 days, the embryo develops into a ball of cells called a blastocyst. A blastocyst contains about 100 cells total and the stem cells are inside. At this stage, the stem cells are pluripotent, they can develop into almost any cell type. To grow the stem cells, scientists remove them from the blastocyst and culture them (grow them in a nutrient rich solution) in a Petri dish in the laboratory. The stem cells divide several times and scientists divide the population into other dishes. After several months, there are millions of stem cells. If the cells continue to grow without differentiating, then the scientists have a stem cell line. Cell lines can be frozen and shared between laboratories. As we will see later, stem cell lines are necessary for developing therapies.Right now, many expectant mothers are asked about how they can store their umbilical cord, the process of storing umbilical cord blood after giving birth. They want to do that because once a mother gives birth, the umbilical cord and remaining blood are often discarded. However, this blood also contains stem cells from the fetus. Umbilical cord blood can be harvested and the embryonic stem cells grown in culture. Unlike embryonic stem cells from earlier in development, fetal stem cells from umbilical cord blood are multipotent – they can develop into a limited number of cell types.
Actually There are two basic types of stem cells source, one is what has already mention above, the others is what we has already known as adult stem cells, adult stem cells act as a pool from which the body can repopulate itself with cells when old ones die out. When a skin stem cell divides, it forms a skin cell and another skin stem cell. The latter is retained as a future source of skin cells; the former migrates to the body’s surface and takes its place among other skin cells. The patients would be given stem cells matched as closely as possible to their immunological make-up. For a diabetic, they would be injected into the pancreas, where they would be transformed into insulin-making cells. Immunosuppressant drugs may still be required when transplanting embryonic stem cells, and doctors are planning improvements. One method is to isolate an individual’s own adult stem cells, for example their dopamine stem cells when scientists grow them in laboratories. These would be re-injected, in this case into a Parkinson’s patient’s brain, where they should restore their lost dopamine production.