How are stem cells harvested from cord blood is a very important question as the part of stem cells research and the usage of stem cells because it will determined whether it can be used or not. There are 3 possible sources of stem cells that usually used especially for transplants: bone marrow, the bloodstream (peripheral blood), and umbilical cord blood from newborns. Although bone. A large number of stem cells are normally found in the blood of newborn babies. After birth, the blood that is left behind in the placenta and umbilical cord (known as cord blood) can be taken and stored for later use in a stem cell transplant. The cord blood is frozen until needed. Stem cells can be preserved for life time, but as of now, we store it for 21 years as per universal guidelines. These stem cells are stored at a temperature of -196 degrees Celsius in vapor phase of liquid Nitrogen. Bone marrow was the first source used for stem cell transplants because it has a rich supply of stem cells.
The collection of blood from the umbilical cord can be done immediately after birth without any distress or upset to the mother or the new-born child; in fact neither will even be aware it is taking place. This is the simple procedure of draining a portion of the umbilical cord blood into the collection bag and sealing it. Collected cord blood is cryopreserved and then stored in a cord blood bank for future transplantation. A cord blood bank may be private or public. While public cord blood banking is widely supported, private cord banking is controversial in both the medical and parenting community. Although umbilical cord blood is well-recognized to be useful for treating hematopoietic and genetic disorders, some controversy surrounds the collection and storage of umbilical cord blood by private banks for the baby’s use. Umbilical cord blood is the blood left over in the placenta and in the umbilical cord after the birth of the baby. The cord blood is composed of all the elements found in whole blood. It contains red blood cells, white blood cells, plasma, platelets and is also rich in hematopoietic stem cells. There are several methods for collecting cord blood. The method most commonly used in clinical practice is the “closed technique”, which is similar to standard blood collection techniques. With this method, the technician cannulates the vein of the severed umbilical cord using a needle that is connected to a blood bag, and cord blood flows through the needle into the bag. On average, the closed technique enables collection of about 75 ml of cord blood.