Many different types of stem cells and their function. There’s so many terminology are used to describe various types of stem cells.Often based on where in the body or what stage in development they come from.
The different types of stem cells and their function are :
- Embryonic Stem Cells
Embryonic stem cells can give rise to all cell types in th body, which is derived from very early embryos. Most embryonic stem cells are derived from embryos that develop from eggs that have been fertilized in vitro—in an in vitro fertilization clinic—and then donated for research purposes with informed consent of the donors. They are not derived from eggs fertilized in a woman’s body.
- Fetal Stem Cells
Fetal stem cells are taken from the foetus. The developing baby is referred to as a fetus from approximately 10 weeks of gestation
- Cord Blood Stem Cells
The applications of cord blood are similar to those of adult bone marrow and are currently used to treat diseases and conditions of the blood or to restore the blood system after treatment for specific cancers, because at birth the blood in the umbilical cord is rich in blood-forming stem cells. Like the stem cells in adult bone marrow, cord blood stem cells are tissue-specific.
- Adult Stem Cells or Tissue-specific Stem Cells
Adult stem cells are tissue-specific, meaning they are found in a given tissue in our bodies and generate the mature cell types within that particular tissue or organ. It is not clear whether all organs, such as the heart, contain stem cells. The term ‘adult stem cells’ is often used very broadly and may include fetal and cord blood stem cells.
Many adult tissues contain stem cells that can replace cells that die or restore tissue after injury. Skin, muscle, intestine and bone marrow, for example, each contain their own stem cells. In the bone marrow, billions of new blood cells are made every day from blood-forming stem cells. These are bone marrow or cord blood stem cell transplantation to treat diseases and conditions of the blood or to restore the blood system after treatment for specific cancers, skin stem cell therapies for burns and limbal stem cells for corneal replacement. In each case, the stem cells repair the same tissue from which they came.
Another type of adult stem cell is the mesenchymal stem cell, which are found in a number of tissues, including bone marrow, and may be able to produce bone, cartilage and fat. It is also possible that these or similar cells may aid in the regeneration of tissues.
- Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPS cells)
The induced pluripotent cells or iPS cells, are created by inducing the specialized cells to express genes that are normally made in embryonic stem cells and that control how the cell functions. In 2006, scientists discovered how to “reprogram” cells with a specialized function (for example, skin cells) in the laboratory, so that they behave like an embryonic stem cell. IPS cells are a powerful method for creating patient- and disease-specific cell lines for research. Embryonic stem cells and iPS cells share many characteristics, including the ability become the cells of all organs and tissues, but they are not identical and can sometimes behave slightly differently.. However, the techniques used to make them need to be carefully refined before they can be used to generate iPS cells suitable for safe and effective therapies.