Definition of Stem Cell Transplant

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The Definition of Stem Cell Transplant is the injection or infusion of healthy stem cells into your body to replace damaged or diseased stem cells. A stem cell transplant may be necessary if your bone marrow stops working and doesn’t produce enough healthy stem cells.

The injection or infusion of healthy stem cells into your body also may be performed if high-dose chemotherapy or radiation therapy is given in the therapy of blood disorders such as leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma or sickle cell anemia.

A stem cell transplant can help your body make enough healthy white blood cells, red blood cells or platelets, and reduce your risk of life-threatening infections, anemia and bleeding.

The procedure to replenish your body’s supply of healthy blood-forming cells is generally called a stem cell transplant, it’s also known as a bone marrow transplant, peripheral blood stem cell transplant or an umbilical cord blood transplant, depending on the source of the stem cells.

Stem cell transplants can use cells from your own body (autologous stem cell transplant), from a donor (allogeneic stem cell transplant) or from an identical twin (syngeneic transplant).

Definition of Stem Cell Transplant


Stem Cell Transplant Process

The process of isolation of stem cells is similar for both autologous and allergenic stem cell transplants. However, in the case of autologous transplants, the patients undergo the stem cell collection procedure prior to receiving high-dose chemotherapy and their cells are frozen and stored until needed. In allergenic transplants, a stem cell donor typically undergoes the procedure to collect just before the transplant is performed. Autologous transplants are performed more frequently. The stem cells are collected, then the patient receives high-dose chemotherapy, and diseased cells are destroyed. For example, the chemotherapy drug melphalan is the most commonly used drug in cancer. Within a few days after completing the high-dose chemotherapy, the stored adult stem cells are transplanted or infused into the patient’s bloodstream. The infusion process is similar to blood transfusion. The frozen bags of adult stem cells are thawed in a warm water bath and infused into a vein over a period of 2-4 h. The infused stem cells travel through the bloodstream and settle in the target tissues, where they begin to produce new cells.

Stem cells have great potential to cure many illnessess which have been a great threat for human beings. Certain illnessess which can be cured in future with the help of stem cells include Parkinson’s disease, coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, congestive heart failure, bone marrow transplants, leukemia, and cell replacement therapy in neurological disease. Of course, there are dozens of other illnessess on which stem cell research is working on, including therapys of vision or ocular disease processes like retinitis pigmentosa and corneal regeneration, as well as musculoskeletal disorders like muscular dystrophy. Stem cells promises cells cannot be denied in the 21st century, they will continue to wage an untold hope for patients around the world seeking answers and cures to formerly deadly disease processes.