To understand how a Stem Cell Differentiates By Making New Proteins we must know first how is a stem cell differentiates, The human body has hundreds of different cell types, all with the same basic DNA, and all of which can ultimately be traced back to identical stem cells. Stem cells are different from other cells in the body in several notable ways. They can divide and renew themselves in so many times, which is other cells are more limited in their divisions. When those stem cells divide, the new cells can become specialized if necessary. A single embryonic stem cell can develop into more than 200 specialized cell types that make up our body. This maturation process is called differentiation and is tightly regulated through strict control of gene activity. If the regulation is lost, specialized cells cannot develop correctly during development. Stem cells have no assigned function in the body, but through the process of specialization,stem cells can take on roles in any of the body’s tissues. These type of cells can be derived from human embryos or from certain spots in the adult human body.
Long-term tissue survival would be impossible without cell division, Inside every tissue, cells are constantly replenishing themselves through the process of division. Neurons are not the only cells that lose their ability to divide as they mature. In fact, many differentiated cells lose this ability. To help counteract this loss, tissues maintain stem cells to serve as a reservoir of undifferentiated cells.
Stem cells typically have the capacity to mature into many different cell types. Whenever stem cells are called upon to generate a particular type of cell, they undergo an asymmetric cell division. With asymmetric division, each of the two resulting daughter cells has its own unique life course. In this case, one of the daughter cells has a finite capacity for cell division and begins to differentiate, whereas the other daughter cell remains a stem cell with unlimited proliferative ability.
Transcription factors — proteins that regulate which genes are transcribed in a cell — appear to be essential to determining the pathway particular stem cells take as they differentiate. For example, both intestinal absorptive cells and goblet cells arise from the same stem cell population, but divergent transcriptional programs cause them to mature into dramatically different cells